At Laura’s Mercantile, our policy is to share only claims about hemp and CBD which are scientifically supported. Below, we cite peer-reviewed research on several topics related to organic farming and CBD, and share relevant news stories about CBD.

Contents

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1) Organic Farming

2) CBD and Neurological Conditions

3) CBD and Inflammation

4) CBD and Cancer

5) CBD and Opioid Addiction

6) CBD and Gastroentology

7) CBD Topical Treatments

8) CBD and Animals/Pets

9) CBD and Safety/Side Effects

10) Relevant News Reports About CBD

 

ORGANIC FARMING

The Organic Center

State of Science Review: Nutritional Superiority of Organic Foods

“…organic plant-based foods are, on average, more nutritious in terms of theirnutrient density for compounds validated by this study’s rigorous methodology. The significant margins in favor of organic food in several of the most important nutrients, and modest margins in favor of conventional samples for less important nutrients, strengthens the evidence supporting this conclusion.

The average serving of organic plant-based food contains about 25% more of the nutrients encompassed in this study than a comparable-sized serving of the same food produced by conventional farming methods.

This is roughly the same margin in favor of organic food reported in the Organic Center’s 2005 State of Science Review on antioxidants.”

More available at http://bit.ly/OrgFoods19

Supporting the Soil Carbon Sponge

Microbiologist, climate scientist Walter Jehne discusses climate & soil health

Walter Jehne is an internationally known Australian soil microbiologist and climatescientist and the founder of Healthy Soils Australia. He is passionate about educatingfarmers, policymakers and others about “the soil carbon sponge” and its crucial role inreversing and mitigating climate change.His work shows how we can safely cool the climate by repairing our disruptedhydrological cycles. That project requires us to return some of the excess carbon in theatmosphere to the soil, where it belongs. In 2017, he participated in an invitation-onlyUnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization conference in Paris aimed at bringingsoil into the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.

Full interview available at http://bit.ly/walterjehne

CBD AND NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

National Institute of Health Patent US6630507B1

Patent Abstract:

Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention. A particular disclosed class of cannabinoids useful as neuroprotective antioxidants is formula (I) wherein the R group is independently selected from the group consisting of H, CH.sub.3, and COCH.sub.3. ##STR1##

More at http://bit.ly/NIHPatent

CBD AND INFLAMMATION

National Center for Biotechnology Information:

Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.

CBD targets enteric reactive gliosis, counteracts the inflammatory environment induced by LPS in mice and in human colonic cultures derived from UC patients. These actions lead to a reduction of intestinal damage mediated by PPAR-gamma receptor pathway. Our results therefore indicate that CBD indeed unravels a new therapeutic strategy to treat inflammatory bowel diseases.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163000

CBD AND CANCER

National Cancer Institute

Cannabis and Cannabinoids PDQ, Article Overview:

  • Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.
  • By federal law, the possession of Cannabis is illegal in the United States, except within approved research settings; however, a growing number of states, territories, and the District of Columbia have enacted laws to legalize its medical use.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved Cannabis as a treatment for cancer or any other medical condition.
  • Chemical components of Cannabis, called cannabinoids, activate specific receptors throughout the body to produce pharmacologic effects, particularly in the central nervous system and the immune system.
  • Commercially available cannabinoids, such as dronabinol and nabilone, are approved drugs for the treatment of cancer-related side effects.
  • Cannabinoids may have benefits in the treatment of cancer-related side effects.

More at http://bit.ly/NCICannabinoids

Sullivan College of Pharmacy University of Louisville:

Investigate Kentucky Hemp-Induced Modulation of Interleukin-1 β Secretion in Ovarian Cancer Cells, First Article Body:

“Our laboratory is interested in searching for alternative therapies for ovarian cancer. Based on our preliminary studies, KY grown hemp, which is similar to marijuana yet non-addictive, demonstrated anti-cancer effects against ovarian cancer.

The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanism behind the hemp-induced anti-cancer effects. Inflammation is known to play a role in carcinogenesis and Interleukins are contributing players of the inflammation. We hypothesized that the hemp-induced modulation of Interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) production may play a role in hemp-induced anti-cancer effects. Both marijuana and hemp contain therapeutically valuable components such as Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabidiolic Acid (CBD-A) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, hemp is more beneficial than marijuana due to its’ non-addictive properties. CBD-A and CBD-induced modulation of cytokines have been reported in different cell types.

To our knowledge, hemp-induced modulation of ovarian cancer and responsible mechanisms are yet to be discovered. Methods: KY hemp extracts were made using supercritical CO2 extraction method by KY commonwealth Extracts company. CBD content of KY hemp was analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) by MRX laboratories. In our laboratory, these hemp extracts were tested for its’ potential anti-cancer effects and mechanism of action. A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) were seeded in 12–well plates.

Following serum starvation, OCCs were treated with either vehicle or different concentrations of hemp extracts for 24 hours. Then, cell supernatants were removed and subject to Bradford protein assay followed by IL-1 β sandwich ELISA. IL-1 β released from each treatment group was detected based on manufacturer’s protocol. In brief, IL-1 β standards, cell supernatants from treatment groups, and no hemp negative control were incubated in ELISA plate coated with IL-1 β antibodies. After a series of steps that included secondary antibodies and a substrate solution, IL-1 β levels were detected spectrophotometrically.

For an experiment, each treatment was done in triplicate and each experiment was repeated a minimum of three times to ensure reproducibility. Hemp-induced attenuation of IL-1 β secretion was detected and this attenuation is significant at 500 µg/ml hemp extract treatment, which contains 335µM CBD and 591 µM CBD-A. Based on the data, it can be concluded that the hemp extract-induced attenuation of IL-1 β secretion might contribute to its protective effects against ovarian cancer.”

More at https://plan.core-apps.com/eb2018/abstract/0ff28721-278c-4d22-9857-004e39739d3a

KY Hemp-induced Modulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Metastasis, First Article Body:

“Our laboratory is interested in searching for a new plant-based therapeutics to treat ovarian cancer.  We are interested in studying anti-cancer effects of KY grown hemp as a potential candidate drug.  Marijuana and hemp belong to the same genus and species. However, they are different in cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. While both CBD and THC are therapeutically beneficial, THC consumption leads to dependence forming habits.  In contrast, hemp is harmless and non-addictive.

Major objective of this study is to investigate whether KY hemp extract can modulate the metastasis of ovarian cancer. Cell migration and invasion are two important indicators of cancer metastasis. Although CBD and THC-induced attenuation of cancer cell migration and invasion have been reported in several cell lines including cervical cancer and breast cancer cells, KY hemp extract-induced anti-cancer effects are yet to be discovered. We are the first to investigate KY hemp-induced modulation of ovarian cancer cell (OCC) metastasis. Methods: Based on the manufacturer’s protocol cell migration and invasion assays were conducted using CytoSelect 96-well cell migration and invasion assay kits (Cell Biolabs). Migration and Invasion assays were based on distinguishing migratory and invasive cells from non-migratory and non-invasive cells.

Migratory cells should be able to move towards the chemoattractant. Invasive cells needed to degrade the proteins in the dried basement membrane matrix, which is coated in the upper surface of the insert membrane. Two different epithelial OCCs, which are A2780 and Mes-OV, were utilized in this study. Following overnight serum starvation, OCCs were lifted using Trypsin-EDTA, and a cell suspension containing 80,000 cells per well were placed in the upper chamber of either the cell migration or the cell invasion plate. Added to the respective cell suspensions were positive controls (80 µM Doxorubicin and Cisplatin), the no hemp negative control (vehicle treated), and different concentrations of KY hemp extracts that contain 8.5-335 µM CBD. Fetal bovine serum (15%) was added to the bottom chamber of each well as the chemoattractant. After 24 hour incubation, migratory and invasive cells were detached from the opposite side of the membrane (the side facing the bottom chamber), lysed, tagged with CyQuant fluorescent dye, and quantified spectrophotometrically.

Our results indicate that KY hemp extract will attenuate OCC migration in a dose dependent manner in both cell lines. In A2780 OCCs, this attenuation was significant at all concentrations tested. A2780 cells treated with 12 -15 µg/ml hemp extract that contain 2.5- 3.2 µM CBD, caused decrease in cell migration comparable to Cisplatin. Based on the data here we conclude that KY hemp has significant anti-metastatic properties against ovarian cancer. ”

More at https://plan.core-apps.com/eb2018/abstract/3c293e66-dc71-4140-8044-1b83d81c7eb4

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health:

Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids. Study Abstract:

“In addition to the well-known palliative effects of cannabinoids on some cancer-associated symptoms, a large body of evidence shows that these molecules can decrease tumour growth in animal models of cancer. They do so by modulating key cell signalling pathways involved in the control of cancer cell proliferation and survival. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of cannabinoids as antitumour agents, focusing on recent discoveries about their molecular mechanisms of action, including resistance mechanisms and opportunities for their use in combination therapy. Those observations have already contributed to the foundation for the development of the first clinical studies that will analyze the safety and potential clinical benefit of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.”

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791144/

CBD AND OPIOID ADDICTION

Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder

Abstract: Despite the staggering consequences of the opioid epidemic, limited nonopioid medication options have been developed to treat this medical and public health crisis. This study investigated the potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating phytocannabinoid, to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety, two critical features of addiction that often contribute to relapse and continued drug use, in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder.

The study is available from the American Journal of Psychiatry here. It is behind a paywall, but here is a thorough article about the study.

CBD AND GASTROENTOLOGY

Gastroenterology & Hepatology:

Use of Medical Cannabis in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

There is currently a large unmet need in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with conventional medical therapy. Despite improvement in disease activity, many patients have persistent clinical symptoms that have significant impact on their quality of life. Patients have been seeking out alternative therapies (including cannabis) to help manage persistent symptoms associated with IBD.

Cannabis, which comes from the plant Cannabis sativa, is composed of hundreds of compounds and over a hundred cannabinoids (including THC and CBD, which are the most well known).

The most-studied receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, enteric nervous system, brain, and immune cells, which are areas of interest in patients with IBD. Activation of these receptors may result in gastrointestinal effects. A 2009 study in a mouse model of colitis found that when the CB1/CB2 receptors were activated, there was a decrease in inflammation. This provides a potential rationale as to the role of cannabis in the management of IBD and IBD-related symptoms.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366240/

CBD TOPICAL TREATMENTS

TOPICAL TREATMENTS INCORPORATING CANNABIS SP. DERIVED BOTANICAL DRUG PRODUCT
U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,507, incorporated herein by reference, discloses pharmaceutical compounds and compositions that are useful as tissue protectants, such as neuroprotectants and cardioprotectants. The compounds and compositions are disclosed to be used in the treatment of acute ischemic neurological insults or chronic neurodegenerative diseases.
The disclosed compositions include cannabidiol and other cannabinoids, and the compositions are disclosed to include THC in amounts that do not promote psychoactive or psychotoxic effects. Accordingly, there is no disclosure of topical compositions that include THC in amounts that exceed the detection limit of THC.
In view of the foregoing, there is a need for topical formulations that comprise a Cannabis derived botanical drug product that take advantage of diverse pharmacologic activities, that are beyond and unforeseen from those described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,507 B1, in treatment of dermatologic and other diseases. We also define that the major cannabinoids are present in our products at concentrations exceeding the commonly applied maximum levels that define cannabis derived products, such as hemp oil, legal for non-drug use can provide unexpected and highly beneficial treatments for a wide variety of diseases.

 

CBD AND ANIMALS/PETS

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)

FDA Investigation into Potential Link between Certain Diets and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

In July 2018, the FDA announced that it had begun investigating reports of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs eating certain pet foods, many labeled as “grain-free,” which contained a high proportion of peas, lentils, other legume seeds (pulses), and/or potatoes in various forms (whole, flour, protein, etc.) as main ingredients (listed within the first 10 ingredients in the ingredient list, before vitamins and minerals). Many of these case reports included breeds of dogs not previously known to have a genetic predisposition to the disease.

The FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) and the Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN), a collaboration of government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories, continue to investigate this potential association. Based on the data collected and analyzed thus far, the agency believes that the potential association between diet and DCM in dogs is a complex scientific issue that may involve multiple factors.

We understand the concern that pet owners have about these reports: the illnesses can be severe, even fatal, and many cases report eating “grain-free” labeled pet food. The FDA is using a range of science-based investigative tools as it strives to learn more about this emergence of DCM and its potential link to certain diets or ingredients.

Following an update in February 2019 that covered investigative activities through November 30, 2018, this is the FDA’s third public report on the status of this investigation.

See the full statement at https://www.fda.gov/animal-veterinary/news-events/fda-investigation-potential-link-between-certain-diets-and-canine-dilated-cardiomyopathy

NOTE: Laura’s Canine Alternatives CBD Dog Treats do not contain peas, lentils, other legume seeds (pulses), or potatoes in various forms (whole, flour, protein, etc.).

Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

Clinical significance: This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with osteoarthritis.

More at https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy

Dogs in the CBD group had a significant (median change, 33%) reduction in seizure frequency, compared with the placebo group. However, the proportion of dogs considered responders to treatment (≥ 50% decrease in seizure activity) was similar between groups. Plasma CBD concentrations were correlated with reduction in seizure frequency. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. No adverse behavioral effects were reported by owners.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Although a significant reduction in seizure frequency was achieved for dogs in the CBD group, the proportion of responders was similar between groups. Given the correlation between plasma CBD concentration and seizure frequency, additional research is warranted to determine whether a higher dosage of CBD would be effective in reducing seizure activity by ≥ 50%.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31067185

Frontiers in Veterinary Science

US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions

Veterinarians practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to advise their clients and recommend the use of CBD, while there was no difference in the likelihood of prescribing CBD products. Recent veterinary graduates were less likely to recommend or prescribe CBD. The most commonly used CBD formulations were oil/extract and edibles. These were most helpful in providing analgesia for chronic and acute pain, relieving anxiety and decreasing seizure frequency/severity. The most commonly reported side-effect was sedation.

Participants felt their state veterinary associations and veterinary boards did not provide sufficient guidance for them to practice within applicable laws. Recent graduates and those practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to agree that research regarding the use of CBD in dogs is needed. These same groups also felt that marijuana and CBD should not remain classified as Schedule I drugs. Most participants agreed that both marijuana and CBD products offer benefits for humans and expressed support for use of CBD products for animals.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338022/

Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs

Thirty, healthy research dogs were assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulations (oral microencapsulated oil beads, oral CBD-infused oil, or CBD-infused transdermal cream). Exposure is dose-proportional (dogs that received more CBD showed higher absorption rates in their blood) and the oral CBD-infused oil provides the most favorable pharmacokinetic profile.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30026641

American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association

Dog owners’ use and perceptions of cannabis products

This study utilized an anonymous, online survey to assess pet owners’ reasons for purchasing cannabis products for administration to their dogs, and their perceptions regarding efficacy of these treatments. Older and more educated owners were more likely to purchase cannabis products. Most products were purchased for treatment of pain, inflammation (i.e. redness, heat, pain, or swelling), and anxiety in dogs; and owners perceived these preparations to be equally or more effective than conventional medications.

Most owners reported only minimal side effects in their dogs. Despite indicating comfort in discussing cannabis administration for pets with their veterinarians, most owners relied on commercial websites for product information. The main reasons for choosing cannabis products were the ability to use as an adjuvant to other therapies and the perception of it being a natural substance. Given this information, it is incumbent upon veterinarians to appropriately counsel their clients and also to advocate for evidence-based studies to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis use in non-human species.

More at https://www.ahvma.org/wp-content/uploads/AHVMA-2018-V51-CannabisUseandPerceptions.pdf

High Times for Cannabis Research

Researchers Aim to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Cannabis in Dogs

Researchers are still learning CBD’s specific effects on dogs, but here’s how the compound is thought to work: Dogs have an endocannabinoid system (ECS), just like humans. The ECS is a network of cellular activators and receptors in the body that regulate physiological processes, including pain, mood, inflammation, stress, and more. CBD binds to and activates the vanilloid, adenosine, and serotonin receptors in a dog’s ECS and helps to regulate pain perception, inflammation, temperature, and more. It also boosts dopamine levels, helping to reduce anxiety and improve mood. CBD also blocks GPR55 signaling, which decreases cancer cell reproduction.

More at https://www.laurasmercantile.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/cbd-for-dogs-science-research.pdf

CBD AND SAFETY/SIDE EFFECTS

National Center for Biotechnology Information:

An Update on Safety and side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.

Results: In general, the often described favorable safety profile of CBD in humans was confirmed and extended by the reviewed research. The majority of studies were performed for treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders. Here, the most commonly reported side effects were tiredness, diarrhea, and changes of appetite/weight. In comparison with other drugs, used for the treatment of these medical conditions, CBD has a better side effect profile.

More at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569602/

RELEVANT NEWS REPORTS ABOUT CBD